Journal Article

A Randomized Trial of Baby Triple P for Preterm Infants: Child Outcomes at 2 Years of Corrected Age

Published: 2019



To determine the efficacy of a hospital-based intervention that transitions into existing community support, in enhancing developmental outcomes at 2 years of corrected age in infants born at less than 32 weeks.

Study design

In total, 323 families of 384 infants born <32 weeks were randomized to receive intervention or care-as-usual. The intervention teaches parents coping skills, partner support, and effective parenting strategies over 4 hospital-based and 4 home-phone sessions. At 2 years of corrected age maternally reported child behavior was assessed by the Infant and Toddler Social Emotional Adjustment Scale. Observed child behavior was coded with the Revised Family Observation Schedule. Cognitive, language, and motor skills were assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III.


Mean gestational age of infants was 28.5 weeks (SD = 2.1), and mothers’ mean age was 30.6 years (SD = 5.8). A total of 162 families (n = 196 infants) were allocated to intervention and 161 families (n = 188 infants) received care-as-usual. There was no significant adjusted difference between treatment groups on dysregulation (0.2; 95% CI −2.5 to 3.0, P = .9) externalizing (0.3; 95% CI −1.6 to 2.2, P = .8), internalizing (−1.5; 95% CI −4.3 to 1.3, P = .3), observed aversive (0.00; −0.04 to 0.04, P = .9), or nonaversive behavior (−0.01; 95% CI −0.05 to 0.03, P = .7). Intervention children scored significantly higher on cognition (3.5; 95% CI 0.2-6.8, P = .04) and motor skill (5.5; 95% CI 2.5-8.4, P < .001), and approached significance on language (3.8; 95% CI −0.3 to 7.9, P = .07).


Baby Triple P for Preterm Infants increases cognitive and motor skills but does not impact behavior. The results are evidence that hospital-based interventions can improve some developmental outcomes for infants <32 weeks.


Carmen SpryKoa WhittinghamKylee ForrestLeanne WinterLouise MarquartLuke JardineMargo Pritchard

Centre Member

Matthew Sanders
Michael O'CallaghanPaul B ColditzPeter H GrayPeter O'RourkeRoslyn N. Boyd


Colditz, P. B., Boyd, R. N., Winter, L., Pritchard, M., Gray, P. H., Whittingham, K., … & Sanders, M. (2019). A Randomized Trial of Baby Triple P for Preterm Infants: Child Outcomes at 2 Years of Corrected Age. The Journal of pediatrics, 210, 48-54.